The Bachelor of Pharmacy degree is popularly known as B-Pharm in India. It is a four-year program with both annual and semester schemes available. In order to be eligible, one must pass with at least 50% marks in 10 + 2 (or an equivqlent examination) with biology/biotechnology as one of the subjects. In some states it is mandatory to give an additional pharmacy entrance examination in order to be eligible for the course. D.Pharm (Diploma of Pharmacy) holders are eligible for admission into B.Pharm (Bachelor of Pharmacy) into the second year directly via Lateral entry in india.
Colleges imparting pharmaceutical education (D.Pharm, B.Pharm, M.Pharm or Pharm D) must be approved by All Indian Council of Technical Education (AICTE) or Pharmacy Council Of India (PCI). For a student to be eligible for registration as a pharmacist in India, the college from which he/she graduated must be approved by the PCI. B-Pharm is often superseded by M-Pharm and PhD level courses although the minimum qualification required for registration as a pharmacist is D.Pharm.
The Bachelor of Business Administration (BBA or B.B.A.) is a bachelor's degree in commerce and business administration. In most universities, the degree is conferred after four years of full-time study in one or more areas of business concentrations. The BBA program usually includes general business courses and advanced courses for specific concentrations.
The degree is designed to give a broad knowledge of the functional aspects of a company and their interconnection, while also allowing for specialization in a particular area. BBA programs expose students to a variety of "core subjects" and allow students to specialize in a specific academic area. The degree also develops the student's practical managerial skills, communication skills and business decision-making capability. Many programs incorporate training and practical experience, in the form of case projects, presentations, internships, industrial visits, and interaction with experts from the industry.
The Bachelor of Technology (commonly abbreviated as B.Tech. and Honours is B.Tech. (Hons.) is an undergraduate academic degree conferred after completion of a three or four-year program of studies at an accredited university or accredited university-level institution.
In general, the degree is awarded to those who have undertaken a degree program which is supplemented by either occupational placements (e.g. supervised practice or internships), practice-based classroom courses. Due to these requirements, the degree normally takes at least four years.
A Bachelor of Science ( B.Sc. or a Science Degree is an undergraduate academic degree awarded for completed courses that generally last three years.
Whether a student of a particular subject is awarded a Bachelor of Science degree or a Bachelor of Arts degree can vary between universities. For example, an economics degree may be given as a Bachelor of Arts (B.A.) by one university but as a B.Sc. by another, and some universities offer the choice of either. Some liberal arts colleges in the United States offer only the BA, even in the natural sciences, while some universities offer only the BS even in non-science fields.
The MBBS (Bachelor of Medicine/Bachelor of Surgery) degree represents the first (graduation) level of training required to be licensed as a physicians, and the MS or MD degree is a higher postgraduate degree, representative of specialty training. Eligibility for the MS or MD course is restricted to medical graduates holding the MBBS degree. The MBBS course is for five and a half years, and training is obtained in medical disciplines (e.g.: Internal Medicine, Radiology, Pathology, etc.). After three years of study and the successful completion of an examination, which includes both theoretical and practical elements, in a pre-clinical or clinical subject of a non-surgical nature the candidate receives MD degree, whereas in a pre-clinical or clinical subject of a surgical nature, i.e. anatomy, general surgery, orthopaedics and gynaecology, the candidate receives the equivalent degree Master of Surgery (MS).
After obtaining the first postgraduate degree, that is MD/MS/FCPS/DNB, one can go for further specialisation in medical or surgical fields. This involves a highly competitive entrance examination. Course has three years of additional training and study and then after passing an examination, both theory and practical, the degree awarded is DM (Doctor of Medicine), like DM in Cardiology, Neurology, Nephrology, Gastroenterology, NeuroRadiology, Critical Care, Pulmonology, Hematology, Medical Oncology, Cardioanaesthesia, and Neuroanaesthesia. For surgical superspecialities the degree awarded is MCh (Magister Chirurgiae), like MCh in Cardiac Thoracic and Vascular Surgery, Neurosurgery, Gastrosurgery, Urology, Plastic Surgery, Pediatric Surgery etc. DM and Mch are Doctorate degrees. A third alternate qualification is DNB (superspecialties), offered by National Board of Examinations, like DNB in Cardiology, Neurology, Cardiac Surgery, Neurosurgery.
The DM and MCh degrees are super-specialties and are very high ranked/prestigious.
Following DM or Mch, one can further go for a third postdoctorate degree that is, postdoctoral fellowship programs of one-year duration in specific subspecialities like Cardiac Electrophysiology, Invasive cardiology, Pediatric cardiology, Epilepsy, stroke, electroencephalography, movement disorders, neuromuscular disorders, cerebrovacular surgery, skull base surgery, pediatric cardiac surgery etc. offered by prestigious government institutes.,
BDS stands for Bachelor of Dental Surgery. In India BDS degree is awarded at the successful completion of four years of study and one year of internship to the students as per the old regulations of Dental council of India. According to new regulations, the BDS course comprises of five years with no internship period. Post graduate courses (Master of Dental Surgery. MDS) are also available in different specialties. It requires 3 years of study after BDS.
Dentistry is the branch of medicine that is involved in the study, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of diseases, disorders and conditions of the oral cavity, the maxillofacial area and the adjacent and associated structures, and their impact on the human body. While pursuing the course, one learns about different aspects of Dental Science, which includes various forms of treatment including surgical procedures. Dental materials, Dental anatomy & Oral histology, Oral Pathology, Community Dentistry, Pedodontics, Oral Medicine & Radiology are some of the topics that are generally taught.
After pursuing BDS course, one can work as dentist in government or private hospitals or open up his/her own clinic, to serve the society.
In India, a Master of Engineering or Master of Technology or Master of Science in Technology or Master of Science in Engineering degree is a postgraduate program in engineering or technology field. This is generally a 2-year (2.5 years for MSc Engg ) specialization program in a specific branch of engineering or a technical field. Students typically enter the ME/MTech/MSc Engg/Msc.Tech programs after completing a 4-year undergraduate program in engineering resulting in the award of a Bachelor of Engineering or Bachelor of Technology degree, or a 5-year program in Science or Applied Sciences resulting in the award of a Master of Science degree.
The ME/MTech/MSc Engg programs in India are usually structured as an Engineering Research degree, lesser than Ph.D and considered to be parallel to M.Phil. and M.S. degrees in Humanities and Science respectively. MTech and MSc Engg programs in India were started by some well known institutions with the aim of producing Research Engineers who can also get the position of "Technologist" in the Industries and Research Institutes. In electrical engineering, for example, areas of specialization might include: power systems, energy engineering, electrical machines, instrumentation and control, high voltage or power electronics, telecommunications, communication networks, signal processing, microelectronics...
Master of Pharmacy (MPharma) in India is offered as post graduate (graduate) course after completion of BPharma degree. The MPharma course is normally of two years duration.In some universities it is one-year research and one year theory examiniation, while some offers M Pharm by research completely leading to doctorate degree. The course focuses on specialisation in the field of pharmacy. The MPharma courses are offered by pharmacy colleges affiliated to uniee leading to entry into the pharmacy profession.
The Master of Business Administration (MBA or M.B.A.) is a master's degree in business administration (management). The MBA degree originated in the United States in the late 19th century when the country industrialized and companies sought scientific approaches to management. The core courses in an MBA program cover various areas of business such as accounting, finance, marketing, human resources and operations in a manner most relevant to management analysis and strategy. Most programs also include elective courses.
The MBA is a terminal degree and a professional degree. Accreditation bodies specifically for MBA programs ensure consistency and quality of education. Business schools in many countries offer programs tailored to full-time, part-time, executive, and distance learning students, many with specialized concentrations.
Master of Computer Applications (MCA)is a three-year (six semesters) professional Master's Degree in computer science awarded in India. The course was designed to meet the growing demand for qualified professionals in the field of Information Technology. It is a postgraduate course that can be taken up after obtaining a Bachelor's Degree. The MCA programme is inclined more toward Application Development and thus has more emphasis on latest programming language and tools to develop better and faster applications. The MCA program focuses on providing a sound theoretical background as well as good practical exposure to students in the relevant areas. It is intended to provide a modern, industry-oriented education in applied computer science. It aims at producing trained professionals who can successfully meet the demands of the information technology industry.
Typically,an MCA is a full-time degree course with a duration of three years (six semesters). It covers various aspects of computational theory,programming, algorithm design and optimization, network and database management, mobile technologies, electronics, mathematics, probability,statistics, accounting, finance, etc. Some institutes provide a six years (eleven semesters and six months On Job Training) integrated MCA.
M.Com or Master of Commerce is a postgraduate degree. This is a two year course approved by UGC. The program includes micro and macroeconomics, business commerce, export and import policies. Some other topics are like economic theory, money systems, banking systems and principles of accounting. There are specialization subjects in the last year that the candidates can choose. The subjects are Statistics, Taxation, Marketing, Accounting & Finance, Banking, Insurance; etc. M.Com is a postgraduate degree program that focuses on the methodical learning of the concepts of Accountancy, Statistics, Mathematics, Finance, Banking, Taxation, Management Studies, etc. Therefore, the study of M.Com degree gives an imminent of commerce, management and economics as a whole.
M.A. or Master of Arts is a postgraduate Course. It is, generally, a broad subdivision of culture composed of many expressive disciplines. The field of arts encompasses visual arts, literature, performing arts, including music, drama, dance, film, related media etc. Master of Arts is a course or program in a particular non-scientific subject and as such provides specialised education. The program is available in various subjects including various languages such as English, Hindi, Regional Languages, Foreign Languages and various other fields of Arts. It is normally a two years program conducted over two or more Semesters depending upon the institution providing it. There are 4 or 5 Papers which one has to pass in order to acquire M.A. Masters Degree Programs in Arts involves lectures, examination, and seminars. Masters Degree in Arts is provided all over India in various Universities. The medium of Instruction and the course itself can be in English, Hindi or any other Language provided. Master of Arts Course is also available through Correspondence or Distance Education.
In India, Bachelor of Education (B.Ed.) is a course offered for those interested in pursuing a career in teaching. The B.Ed. degree is mandatory for teaching at the secondary (classes 9 and 10) and higher secondary (10+2 or classes 11 and 12). The minimum qualification required for entry into B.Ed. course is Bachelor of Arts (B.A.) or Bachelor of Science (B.Sc.). While students from the Arts stream are trained to teach subjects like History, Civics, Geography, and languages, the students from the Science stream are trained to teach Mathematics, Physics, Chemistry, and Biology.
In India, chartered accountants are regulated by the Institute of Chartered Accountants of India which was established by the Chartered Accountants Act 1949. Prior to 1949, Restricted State Auditors were registered with the respective princely states and British provincial state governments. One of the toughest course of the world. Associate members of the ICAI are entitled to use the prefix 'CA' to their name. Members who are in full-time practice, and have completed 5 years of practice, can add 'FCA' as a prefix to their names. As of December 2013, ICAI had more than 240,000 registered members. Entry to the profession can be by taking the CPT after completion of schooling (12th grade). Alternatively, graduates may take the Intermediate exam.
The intermediate examination is divided into two groups of subjects. On clearing the first group of IPC level, the student has to get training as an articled assistant for three years in a Chartered firm. In third year of training trainees have option to work in any industry before taking the final exam.
For overall development, the student has to undergo two soft skill and communication trainings named GMCS I & GMCS II, which usually lasts for fifteen days each.GMCS-I has to be completed within 1 year of joining as an article, while GMCS-II has to be completed in the final year of articleship or can be undertaken even after the exams. A comprehensive 100 hours Information Technology training and an orientation programme for soft skills development has to be compulsorily completed before joining as an article in a CA firm.
Company secretary course is one of the most sought after and financially rewarding courses in India. This is a distance learning course and the training is given by ICSI (The Institute of Company Secretaries of India) that regulates the profession of company secretaries. Provision of oral coaching classes is also available, but it is optional. The course material is provided by the institute at the time of registration.